Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Orozco in San Francisco, 1917-19

While researching for my work in progress "Schindler-Scheyer-Eaton-Ain: A Case Study in Adobe" I learned that renowned Mexican muralist Jose Clemente Orozco spent two formative years in San Francisco during World War I. Very little has been written about this part of his fascinating life. With this I hope to spark more research into this seminal period in the evolution of modernism in the Bay Area art scene.

Jose Clemente Orozco, 1925, attributed to Edward Weston. From Avant-Garde Art and Artists in Mexico: Anita Brenner's Journals of the Roaring Twenties, edited by Susannah Joel Glusker, University of Texas Press, 2010, p. 146.

Orozco, Jose Clemente, "Los Neo-Serviles," illustration from El Ahuizote, October 17, 1911. From Paint the Revolution: Mexican Modernism 1920-1950 edited by Matthew Affron et al, Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2016, p. 24.

Like many other refugees from the 1910-20 Mexican Revolution, Orozco made his way north of the border to explore the wonders of California and perhaps find an atmosphere more amenable to creating art. He heard enticing stories from friends preceding him to the U.S. such as newspaperman Joaquin Pina, who right after the outbreak of the Revolution had gotten him work as a politcal cartoonist with the satirical journal El Ahuizote (see above).

Orozco, Jose Clemente, "Only at the Cost of Their Blood Do the People Take Their Freedom," illustration from La Vanguardia, May 14, 1915. (Ibid, p. 25).

In 1915 Orozco joined the House of the World Workers, a Revolutionary group which took over the Los Dolores Church in Orizaba. Under the editorship of his idol and early teacher Dr. Atl, Orozco provided the illustrations and political cartoons for the group's propagandist revolutionary organ La Vanguardia. (see above and below).

Orozco, Jose Clemente, "What should I serve father, whiskey or tequila?" illustration from La Vanguardia, May 19, 1915. (The Press and Revolution in Mexico, La Vanguardia, 1915 by Elissa Rashkin, 2008, p. 15).

Orozco, Jose Clemente, "House of Tears: The Pimp's Dance I," watercolor, 1913-16. (Ibid, p. 22.).

Pina was by 1916 working as a reporter for the Spanish language newspaper La Cronica in San Francisco. His encouraging letters convinced a curious Orozco to pack his paintings and leave his studio and head north in hopes of a Bay Area exhibition. Orozco was detained in Laredo, Texas where over 60 of the devastated artist's paintings were confiscated and destroyed due to their "illicit" subject matter after an earlier than expected solo exhibition curated by the border agents (see above and below for example). (Jose Clemente Orozco: An Autobiography translated by Robert C. Stephenson, University of Texas Press, 1962, pp. 59-66).

Orozco, Jose Clemente, "House of Tears: The Pimp's Hour," watercolor, 1913-16. From Jose Clemente Orozco in the United States, 1927-1934, edited by Renato Gonzales Mello and Diane Miliotes, Norton, 2002, p. 23.

Orozco wrote in his autobiography, 
"The pictures were far from immoral, there was nothing shameless about them, there weren't even any nudes, but the officials were firm in the conviction that they were protecting the purity and innocence of North America from stain, or else that domestic concupiscence was in sufficient supply, without any need to be augmented from abroad." (Stephenson, p. 60).
Revista de Revistas, Cinco de Mayo, 1912. Cover art by J. A. Vargas. From SMU Digital Collections.

After making his way to San Francisco Orozco reunited with Pina who introduced him to his editor and publisher Fernando R. Galvan, another refugee from the Revolution. Galvan had come to San Francisco and became involved with  La Cronica around the time of the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition. He became editor and publisher sometime in 1916. Before coming to the U.S. Galvan had edited Revista de Revistas (see above) in Mexico City from 1912 to 1914.

La Cronica, October 15, 1916 edited by Fernando R. Galvan. From Historical Newspapers Online.

In what may have been his first mention in an American newspaper, seemingly Pina reported in the above October 1916 issue of La Cronica on Orozco's first one-man exhibition in Mexico City at the Gamoneda Biblos Bookstore. This indicated that they may have been corresponding and/or that Pina or someone else at the paper may have seen the below review of Orozco's exhibition in Mexico City's La Republica by his close friend Raziel Cabildo. (Stephenson, p. 33).

Cabildo, Raziel, "Artes plásticas: la exposición de J.C. Orozco en la casa Biblos." La República: Semanario polítio (México D. F., Mexico), September 29, 1916, 9-10. From the Museum of Fune Arts Houston Digital Archives.

Cabildo's review described Orozco as the “most repudiated, the most contradicted, the least understood artist in Mexico because of the themes he explored, the brothels of the city, and the use of a technique based in caricature." The paintings were mainly from the same 1913-16 "House of Tears" series destroyed by the Laredo border agents. The exhibition took place at above-mentioned Gamoneda's Biblos Bookstore, located in the historic center of Mexico City, after the Academia de Bellas Artes had refused to show his works. In a November companion review in the same publication Francisco Monterde cited the lack of understanding of Orozco’s work as stemming from those who do not understand that there is a “powerful youth that destroyed a regime and is changing the milquetoast spirit of the country.” (Fradique [Monterde, Francisco], "Artes plásticas: los pintores jaliscienses: José Clemente Orozco,"La República: Semanario polítio (México D. F., Mexico), November 22, 1916, 9-10. From the Museum of Fine Arts Houston Digital Archives.

Market Street military parade, 1918. From San Francisco Public Library Digital Photo Collection.

Orozco wrote about the patriotic war fervor permeating the streets of San Francisco after his arrival (see above for example).
"We heard the song "Over There" at all hours. The air was thick with it. ... The Devil, for the moment, was the Kaiser, the Number One Enemy of Democracy, and everywhere his effigy was to be encountered, with his aggressive mustachios and his helmet." (Stephenson, p. 63).
Galvan and Orozco became fast friends and decided to go into business together. They at first discussed opening a gallery with Orozco painting and Galvan selling. Around the end of 1917 Galvan apparently sold La Cronica to Pina who continued publishing the weekly under the new Hispano-America masthead. (Hispanic Periodicals in the United States, Origins to 1960: A Brief History by Nicolás Kanellos, Arte Publico Press, Houston, 2000, p. 200 and "Breve Historia de "La Cronica" Hoy "Hispano-America," Hispano-America, May 10, 1919, p. 2). 

Galvan and Orozco leased a large space in an industrial building at 1322 Howard Street (see below). Here they built an artist studio, frame shop and living quarters and put up a huge sign advertising Fernando R. Galvan and Company. (Orozco and Galvan, U.S., World War I Draft Registration Cards, September 12, 1918. From Ancestry.com). 

Site of the Fernando R. Galvan and Company, 1322 Howard St., San Francisco. From Google Maps.

As were the border agents in Laredo and most of the Mexico City art critics, Galvan was not enthusiastic about the commercial value of the surviving paintings in Orozco's portfolio thus they agreed to branch out into commercial graphic advertising work. As they moved forward Galvan acted as salesman-dealer-framer and Orozco provided the art work. Most of their product consisted of "hand-painted" announcements and posters for local movie houses. After they quickly learned the trick of manipulating the colored lithographs the theaters gave them as models with a few strategic brush strokes of oil paint they could produce and frame a week's worth of posters in less than an hour (see below for example). This easily allowed plenty of time for extensive Bay Area sight-seeing and carousing by Orozco. (Stephenson, p. 65).

Typical period theater lobby posters, Acme Theater, Stockton near Broadway, 1918. 

Montgomery and Washington Streets arts district just after the 1906 earthquake. The buildings were quickly restored and occupied by local artists. From San Francisco Public Library Digital Photo Collection.
"I would visit the University of California, or the Bohemian quarters of San Francisco, with their cabarets, their dance halls, their Italian restaurants, and their saloons in the style of the Forty-niners, decorated with photographs of the most celebrated Mexican bandits of the time, that is, the dispossessed, who had been driven from their lands. Through this district, (see above) and through the studios of sculptors and painters there, passed the joyous, noisy, money-laden crowd which filled this world. There was a restaurant called "Coppa," decorated by the many painters in San Francisco. Uprooted artists could dine there a few times in exchange for pictures drawn on the walls. Happily I was not reduced to painting anything for the Coppa. The time for murals had not yet arrived." (Ibid, pp. 65-66).
Interior of Coppa's "Red Paint" Restaurant, 534 Washington St., San Francisco ca. 1918. 

The artistic circle at Coppa's Orozco would undoubtedly have become an intimate part of included Mexican ex-patriot Xavier Martinez and the faculty of the newly formed California School of Fine Arts which included Maynard Dixon, Ralph Stackpole, Gottardo Piazzoni, Spencer Macky and others. The walls of Coppa's "Red Paint" were irreverantly covered with the colorful murals of this rowdy group. Attracted by their Bohemian artistic sensibilities an intrigued Orozco enrolled in classes at the new school and likely received some early muralistic inspiration during this period.

Interior of Coppa's "Red Paint" Restaurant, 534 Washington St., San Francisco ca. 1918. From The Life of Maynard Dixon by Donald J. Hagerty, Gibbs-Smith, 2010, p. 121.

Northwest corner of Washington and Sansome Streets. The site of Coppa's was the third building from the right at 534 Washington St. From San Francisco Public Library Digital Photo Collection.

California School of Fine Arts faculty, ca. 1919-20. From period catalogue.

In his oral history Spencer Macky remembered Orozco's time at the California School of Fine Arts,
"Stackpole, one of our faculty, had been to Mexico and had worked with Diego Rivera. Ralph Stackpole was quite a significant character here, you know sculptor and somewhat of a painter. And he was the one who told us about Rivera. Long before this time I used to teach Orozco. He was in my classes for drawing for two years as a young man. It was just around 1917 or '18 that Orozco came up as a refugee. He'd been in a revolution down there and had lost one of his arms; his right arm, I think, and he could work with his left. An amazingly clever person. And I taught him drawing there. ... He was a student when the school was at the site of the Mark Hopkins Hotel (see below).
San Francisco Institute of Art, California and Mason Streets, Nob Hill, Loring Rixford, architect, 1907. (From "Work Begun on Temporary Building for Art Association," San Francisco Call, February 4, 1907, p. 5).
A few years later he came back to pay us a visit in this new school which I designed, the School of Fine Arts on Chestnut Street in San Francisco (see below), and he said, "Oh, I'll paint you a mural to go on that tower in memory of our old days when I was a student of this school."
California School of Fine Arts, Chestnut and Jackson Streets, San Francisco, Bakewell and Brown, architects, 1927. From San Francisco Public Library Digital Photo Collection.
I remember distinctly [his work] was rather crude, you know. He was instinctively rather crude and rough. I didn't think much of him myself, to tell you the truth. He probably didn't work carefully enough, but nevertheless he was evidently away ahead of me in his ideas of vigor and strength and all that sort of thing.    
He didn't stay here, except to my knowledge, as a student. And later [1930] I met him with his lady friend [Alma Reed] who was the one who pushed him and was his mouthpiece, a very dynamic person, who exploited him, pushed him forward, introduced him, and interpreted him to the American public, just like Madam ... Scheyer ... the lady who brought the Blue Four out here from Germany." (E. Spencer Macky and Constance Macky Reminiscences, oral interview by Corinne L. Gilb, Bancroft Library, U.C.-Berkeley, 1954, pp. 82, 87)
By like token Orozco was not impressed with the level of modernism being taught in San Francisco's art schools. He recollected in his autobiography,
"Art in San Francisco was one hundred percent academic. Even New York was as yet untouched by the Modern Art of the Paris School, with which as yet only a select minority was acquainted." (Stephenson, p. 66).
As Macky related above, Orozco and his New York dealer Alma Reed arrived in San Francisco from Los Angeles in June of 1930. Having just completed "Prometheus" at Pomona College to much fanfare he was in search of walls for another mural. Orozco and Reed, formerly from San Francisco, spent a delightful summer in the Bay Area reconnecting with old friends, exhibiting his recent work and preparing for an important upcoming exhibition of Mexican art at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Orozco must have been somewhat dismayed to learn of Stackpole's and Macky's involvement in planning Rivera's imminent murals for the Pacific Stock Exchange Building and the California School of Fine Arts. (For much more on Orozco's 1930 time in Los Angeles, Carmel and San Francisco see my "Brett Weston's Smokestacks and Pylons, 1927").

Orozco thoroughly enjoyed reliving his earlier time in San Francisco. Alma Reed wrote of this period,
"After long hours at the easel, evening found Orozco ready and eager to enjoy the diversions for which San Francisco is world renowned. There was always a choice of numerous theaters, French, Spanish, Italian, and Chinese restaurants, studio parties on Telegraph and Russian Hills, motor drives with one of my sisters or brothers at the wheel and a car full of pleasant friends. Orozco used to delight in driving at sunset through Golden Gate Park and along the several-mile stretch of white beach between the Cliff House with its famed seal rocks and the eucalyptus-lined road that turned inland to wind around Twin Peaks. Usually he would propose a brisk walk for a few blocks along the [Great] [H]ighway that he liked to call 'the last street of the Western Hemisphere.'" (Orozco by Alma Reed, Oxford University Press, 1956, p. 195. Author's note: Orozco's 1917-19 friend and partner Fernando Galvan was listed in the 1919 City Directory as living at 1686 Great Highway a few blocks south of Golden Gate Park).
Woodrow Wilson in San Francisco, September 27, 1919. 

Orozco ended his San Francisco stay in September of 1919 when he decided to leave for New York. In his autobiography he remembered the exact day he left.
"Tired of San Francisco, I determined to move on to New York. At the very moment when I was on my way to take the train across the continent, Woodrow Wilson was arriving on his tour of the country in support of the league of Nations. He stood in his automobile (see above), smiling, his hat in his hand. The crowd was portentously silent, in sign of disagreement and protest. It was clear that the League was an intolerable farce." (Stephenson, p. 66).
Orozco at work at the National Preparatory School, Mexico City, 1926. Photo by Tina Modotti. From Glusker, p. 21.

In closing, it is intriguing to imagine Orozco and his 1926 mural chronicler Tina Modotti (see above) crossing paths during his 1917-19 stay in San Francisco. Modotti was just achieving a modicum of fame within the Italian theatrical troupe La Moderna at the Washington Square Theater depicted in the below announcement. This was just a few blocks west of Orozco's art circle hangouts. How ironic would it have been if Galvan had lined La Moderna up as theater poster clients. (For much more on this see my "The Schindlers and the Hollywood Art Association." For much more on Orozco's time in Los Angeles and New York see my "Richard Neutra and the California Art Club." For much on Modotti's early stage and movie career see my "Tina Modotti, Lloyd Wright and Otto Bollman Connections,1920").

La Moderna Theater Poster, 1918. From Shadows, Fire, Snow: The Life of Tina Modotti by Patricia Albers, University of California Press, 2002, p. 112.

Sunday, March 12, 2017

Edward Weston and Diego Rivera, December 1930

Diego Rivera, Mexico City, ca. 1923-4. Photo by Edward Weston. Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Weston Collection.

Knowing of his close friend Diego Rivera's November-December 1930 exhibition at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor and his exciting San Francisco mural commissions, Edward Weston decided come up from Carmel to pay him a surprise visit. Weston also wanted to bask in the concurrent exhibition of his own work at the Vickery, Atkins and Torrey Gallery and socialize with photographer friends Ansel Adams, Dorothea Lange and husband Maynard Dixon, and Imogen Cunningham and husband Roi Partridge.

Exhibition Catalogue, Diego Rivera, California Palace of the Legion of Honor, November 15 to December 25, 1930. Introduction by Katherine Field Caldwell. From author's collection.

Frontispiece portrait of Diego Rivera, Mexico City, ca. 1923-4 by Edward Weston. (Ibid).

Diego and Frida, Ralph Stackpole's Studio, 27 Jessop Place, San Francisco, December, 1930. Photo by Edward Weston. Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Weston Collection.

Weston fondly wrote of the visit,
"I met Diego! I stood behind a stone block, stepped out as he lumbered downstairs into Ralph [Stackpole]'s courtyard on Jessop Place, - and he took me clear off my feet in an embrace. I photographed Diego again, his new wife - Frieda - too: she is in sharp contrast to Lupe, petite, - a little doll alongside Diego, but a doll in size only, for she is strong and quite beautiful, shows very little of her father's German blood. Dressed in native costume even to huaraches, she causes much excitement on the streets of San Francisco. People stop in their tracks to look in wonder. We ate at a little Italian restaurant [Coppa's] where many of the artists gather, recalled old days in Mexico, with promises of meeting soon again in Carmel. Pfleuger - architect - was another contact worthwhile. He sat to me  - on the roof of Ralph's." (The Daybooks of Edward Weston, Volume II, California, pp. 198-9).
Frida Kahlo, Ralph Stackpole's Studio, 27 Jessop Place, San Francisco, December, 1930. Photo by Edward Weston. Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Weston Collection.

Diego Rivera, Ralph Stackpole's Studio, 27 Jessop Place, San Francisco, December, 1930. Photo by Edward Weston. Center for Creative Photography, University of Arizona, Weston Collection.

Lady Hastings, San Francisco, ca. 1930. Photo by Edward Weston from The San Franciscan, April 1931, p. 21.

The wife of Lord Hastings, one of Rivera's mural assistants, also sat for a portrait while Weston was in town. It was published in the April 1931 issue of The San Franciscan with the caption, 
"Lady Hastings who is being widely entertained during her sojourn in San Francisco, while her husband, Lord Hastings, assists Diego Rivera with fresco panels in the Stock Exchange and the California School of Fine Arts." 
Storer House, 8161 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, Frank Lloyd Wright, architect, 1924.

Weston made prints of his San Francisco reconnection with Rivera before heading south for the holidays to visit the family. Brett, who had recently established his first independent studio in Frank Lloyd Wright's Storer House (see above) through the largess of Pauline Schindler, picked up his father in Carmel and drove him back to Los Angeles. (For more detail see my "Brett Weston's Smokestacks and Pylons").

"Toward the Big Sur" by Edward Weston, The Carmelite, May 2, 1929. Courtesy Harrison Memorial Library, Carmel.

While in Southern California Weston hooked up with close friends Johan Hagemeyer, Merle Armitage and Ramiel McGehee and visited Pauline at the Storer House. She had herself recently returned from a two year sojourn in Carmel where she edited and published the local progressive weekly newspaper, The Carmelite in which she frequently featured the work of Weston (see above for example). He shared with her his prints of Rivera and other recent work prompting her to recommend he send them off to various suggested publications. (For much more on Pauline's marketing efforts on behalf of the artists and architects in her wide circle see my "Pauline Gibling Schindler: Vagabond Agent for Modernism").

Of the Rivera prints she recommended,
"i think also that the Rivera pictures should be used now while the san francisco work is hot. why not send it to "creative art?" or "the international studio?" or whatever publication you consider superlative in that line. or send the glossy to me, and i will send it to where you suggest, with a brief accompanying article. how about sending the rivera beside mop and garbage can to "the new masses?" please let me know exact details as much as possible of the s. f. paintings of rivera for my articles." (Pauline Schindler to Edward Weston, February 13, 1931. Center for Creative Photography, Weston Papers).
Pauline would have been dying to meet Rivera knowing full well of his politics from Weston and former Schindler House tenant and Blue Four art dealer Galka Scheyer and the news media. She would meet Rivera through Scheyer and mutual friend Marjorie Eaton on a trip to the Bay Area two weeks later. (Ibid).

Galka Scheyer had been staying with Pauline and Brett and perhaps crossed paths with mutual friend Weston when she visited Rivera in San Francisco to solicit his co-sponsorship for her upcoming Blue Four exhibition at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor in April. (For much more on the Scheyer-Rivera connection see my "Schindler-Scheyer-Eaton-Ain: A Case Study in Adobe").

(Author's note: Brett Weston had photographed Mexican muralist amigo Jose Clemente Orozco in the spring of 1930 while he was creating his Prometheus mural at Pomona College. His father photographed him in Carmel during a July visit with his dealer Alma Reed while they were in San Francisco scouting for mural walls and preparing for his upcoming exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. For details see my "Brett Weston's Smokestacks and Pylons").

Lovell Beach House, Newport Beach, R. M. Schindler, architect, 1926. Photo by Edward Weston, August 2, 1927. Courtesy UC-Santa Barbara Architecture and Design Collections, Schindler Papers.

The material in this post will be part of a larger project, "The Schindlers and the Westons: An Avant-Garde Friendship" (see above).

Saturday, March 11, 2017

Maynard Dixon and Diego Rivera Connections

"Allegory of California," Pacific Stock Exchange Building, San Francisco, Diego Rivera, 1931. Photographer unknown. Courtest Albert Bender Papers, Mills College.

There are some fascinating comparisons between Rivera's 1931 "Allegory of California" mural in Timothy Pflueger's Pacific Stock Exchange Building and Maynard Dixon and Frank Van Sloun's 1926 mural panels in the ballroom of Charles Peter Weeks's Mark Hopkins Hotel. Pflueger gave Rivera free rein to develop his allegory around the persona of period tennis star Helen Wills Moody (see below) who symbolized the youthful exuberance of burgeoning California while Weeks directed Dixon and Van Sloun to use as a central unifying theme the mythological Queen Califia as the "Spirit of California."

Diego Rivera and Helen Wills Moody, 1930. Courtesy San Francisco Public Library.

Dixon, Maynard, "Queen Califia," Room of the Dons, Mark Hopkins Hotel, 1926. Pacific Coast Architect, January 1927.

Maynard Dixon, ca. 1925. Photo by Dorothea Lange. Courtesy Oakland Museum of California, Dorothea Lange Collection.

Dixon and Van Sloun were initially among the most vocal opponents of bringing the "communist" Rivera to San Francisco when a plethora of local talent was available. The controversy gradually subsided after Rivera's work began to take shape and Dixon's close friend Ralph Stackpole, who was hosting Rivera in his Montgomery St. studio, introduced him to local artists who began socializing with the affable Mexican.

Rivera and Ralph Stackpole, 1930. Courtesy San Francisco Public Library.

Exhibition Catalogue, Diego Rivera, California Palace of the Legion of Honor, November 15 to December 25, 1930. Introduction by Katherine Field Caldwell. From author's collection.

Dixon, Maynard, "Portrait of Galka Scheyer," 1925. (From Barnett, p. 452).

Coincidentally, Dixon befriended and opened doors for Galka Scheyer in the fall of 1925 about the time Weeks commissioned him for the Mark Hopkins Murals. Scheyer befriended Rivera in 1931 (see above for example) and got him to sponsor her Blue Four exhibitions at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor and in Mexico City later the same year. This will be covered in much greater detail in my upcoming "Schindler-Scheyer-Eaton-Ain: A Case Study in Adobe."

Friday, March 10, 2017

Two Schindler Coterie Avant-Garde Filmmakers: Boris Deutsch and Slavko Vorkapich

R. M. Schindler, 1927. Photo by Edward Weston. Collection Center for Creative Photography. ©1981 Arizona Board of Regents.

While researching for an essay on architect R. M. Schindler's connections with Galka Scheyer, Marjorie Eaton and the San Francisco art community I discovered that around the time Schindler met prospective client Eaton he also was entertaining two avant-garde filmmakers at his legendary Kings Road salons. (For much more on the Kings Road salons see my "Pauline Gibling Schindler: Vagabond Agent for Modernism").

Marjorie Eaton ca. late 1930s. Head shot by Dorothea Lange. Courtesy Oakland Museum of California, Dorothea Lange Collection.

Scheyer's introduction of artist Eaton (see above) into the Schindler coterie in 1928 (see below for example) where she met artist Boris Deutsch and soon-to-be Schindler client Slavko Vorkapich likely planted a seed for her late 1930s career switch to acting.

"Sadakichi Hartmann Reading Poe at Kings Road" by Boris Deutsch, 1928.

Boris Deutsch, ca. late 1920s.

Title block from "Lullaby" directed by Boris Deutsch.

Deutsch produced and directed the 15 minute one reeler "Lullaby" starring his wife Riva (see below) and Michael Visaroff in 1929. He designed the sets and art work himself for the $500 production.

Stills from "Lullaby" by Boris Deutsch, 1929. From The Most Typical Avant-Garde: History and Geography of Minor Cinemas in Los Angeles by David E. James, University of California Press, 2005, p. 37.

Eaton corresponded with Schindler from Taos in 1930 asking him to arrange meetings for her and her new artist friend James Morris with Deutsch and collectors Walter and Louise Arensberg. It was around this time that  Eaton sat for the below portrait which she added to her growing collection of work by Galka Scheyer's "Blue Four." 

Portrait of Marjorie Eaton ca. late 1920s. From the Marjorie Eaton Collection. Courtesy of Eaton's niece, Susan Kirk

Slavko Vorkapich. From USC Cinematic Arts.

Two years after producing and directing "The Life and Death of 9413: A Hollywood Extra" Slavko Vorkapich commissioned Schindler to remodel his Beverly Hills house in 1929, a project that did not materialize. In 1938 he hired late 1920s Schindler apprentice and 1934 Galka Scheyer House addition designer Gregory Ain to design and build a guest house. The following year Eaton hired Ain to design and build an adobe house on her family compound in Palo Alto. This will be discussed in depth in my upcoming "Schindler-Scheyer-Eaton-Ain: A Case Study in Adobe." 

The title card from "The Life and Death of 9413: A Hollywood Extra." From Wikipedia.

The $97 budget "A Hollywood Extra" was shot over several weekends in Slavko's kitchen using domestic odds and ends and edited in synchronization with Gershwin's "Rhapsody in Blue." (James, p. 39).

Stills from "The Life and Death of 9413 - A Hollywood Extra" by Slavko Vorkapich, Robert Florey and Gregg Toland, 1927. From The Most Typical Avant-Garde: History and Geography of Minor Cinemas in Los Angeles by David E. James, University of California Press, 2005, p. 41.

All this will be rolled into my work in progress, "The Schindlers and the Westons: An Avant-Garde Friendship" (see below).

Lovell Beach House, Newport Beach, R. M. Schindler, architect, 1926. Photo by Edward Weston, August 2, 1927. Courtesy UC-Santa Barbara Architecture and Design Collections, Schindler Papers.